LDmicro with 999 rung support

Posted February 11, 2013 by palmliu
Categories: Uncategorized

LDmicro with 999 rung support (by asc)
Hit the 99 rung limitation, the ld file when compiled still fit the 40 pin pics. So I needed to find a way to increase the amount of rungs supported.

Could not get LDmicro to compile using the 2003 Platform SDK download. The sdk did not include cl.exe for x86.

Finally got LDmicro to build using UnixTools, Strawberry Pearl and Visual C++ 2010 Express by going to Visual Studio Command Prompt 2010, cd to the ldmicro-rel2.2\ldmicro folder and type make.

I increased the rungs to 999 by changing the following line in ldmicro.h
#define MAX_RUNGS 999

This alone seems to work but the rung numbers on the left side of the screen print as two characters. To fix that, draw_outputdev.cpp needs to be changed.

comment all the instructions in the following if statement
if(rung < 10) {

and add the following lines below

char r[3] = { (rung / 100) + ’0′, (rung – (rung / 100) * 100)/10 + ’0′ , (rung % 10) + ’0′ };
TextOut(Hdc, 5, yp, r, 3); // 5 used to be 8

To get the export as text function displaying 3 character rung numbers, comment all the instruction in the following if statement
if((i + 1) < 10) {

and add the following lines below

ExportBuffer[cy+1][2] = ’0′ + ((i + 1) % 10);
ExportBuffer[cy+1][1] = ’0′ + ((i+1) – ((i+1) / 100) * 100)/10;
ExportBuffer[cy+1][0] = ’0′ + ((i + 1) / 100);

find the line
ExportBuffer[i] = (char *)CheckMalloc(l);

and change to
ExportBuffer[i] = (char *)CheckMalloc(l+1); // added 3 char rungs

This seems to work fine. The hex files produced by this modified version match the test files supplied with the sources.

Attached is a file with the files that have been modified and a compiled ldmicro.

Download link:
http://cq.cx/ladder-forum.pl?action=attachment&id=2399

4 digit counter by LDmicro

Posted February 11, 2013 by palmliu
Categories: Uncategorized

7seg-4digit

LDmicro export text
for ‘Atmel AVR ATmega8 28-PDIP’, 4.000000 MHz crystal, 5.0 ms cycle time

LADDER DIAGRAM:

|| ||
|| ; Sample program: how to drive a multiplexed 7-segment LED display. This is ||
001|| ; for a 3-digit common-cathode display but it is easy to modify. ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ; With a 5 ms cycle time, this will oscillate at 100 Hz, which should be ||
002|| ; okay (33 Hz refresh rate, 1/3 duty cycle). ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| Rdosc Rdosc ||
003||——-]/[-----------------------------------------------------------------( )-------||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| Rdosc Cdigit ||
004||-------] [--------------------------------------------------------------{CTC 0:3}----||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ; Use the Ycom_digitx lines to drive the base/gate of the NPN transistor/ ||
005|| ; n-FET used to switch the cathode of digit x. ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| [Cdigit ==] Ycom_digit0 ||
006||—[ 0 ]–+———————————————————-(/)——-||
|| | ||
|| | {digit := } ||
|| +—————————————————-{ digit0 MOV}–||
|| ||
|| [Cdigit ==] Ycom_digit1 ||
||—[ 1 ]–+———————————————————-(/)——-||
|| | ||
|| | {digit := } ||
|| +—————————————————-{ digit1 MOV}–||
|| ||
|| [Cdigit ==] Ycom_digit2 ||
||—[ 2 ]–+———————————————————-(/)——-||
|| | ||
|| | {digit := } ||
|| +—————————————————-{ digit2 MOV}–||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| [Cdigit ==] Ycom_digit3 ||
007||—[ 3 ]–+———————————————————-(/)——-||
|| | ||
|| | {digit := } ||
|| +—————————————————-{ digit3 MOV}–||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ; You can drive the segment pins of the display directly from the GPIO pins, ||
008|| ; Yseg_a to Yseg_b. ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| [digit /=] [digit /=] Yseg_a ||
009||—[ 1 ]——-[ 4 ]———————————————( )——-||
|| ||
|| [digit /=] [digit /=] Yseg_b ||
||—[ 5 ]——-[ 6 ]———————————————( )——-||
|| ||
|| [digit /=] Yseg_c ||
||—[ 2 ]————————————————————–( )——-||
|| ||
|| [digit /=] [digit /=] [digit /=] Yseg_d ||
||—[ 1 ]——-[ 4 ]——-[ 7 ]—————————-( )——-||
|| ||
|| [digit ==] Yseg_e ||
||—[ 0 ]—+———————————————————-( )——-||
|| | ||
|| [digit ==] | ||
||—[ 2 ]—+ ||
|| | ||
|| [digit ==] | ||
||—[ 6 ]—+ ||
|| | ||
|| [digit ==] | ||
||—[ 8 ]—+ ||
|| ||
|| [digit /=] [digit /=] [digit /=] [digit /=] Yseg_f ||
||—[ 1 ]——-[ 2 ]——-[ 3 ]——-[ 7 ]———–( )——-||
|| ||
|| [digit /=] [digit /=] [digit /=] Yseg_g ||
||—[ 0 ]——-[ 1 ]——-[ 7 ]—————————-( )——-||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ; Fill in your program here; just set the output that you want on digit0, ||
010|| ; digit1, and digit2. ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| {digit0 := } ||
011||———————————————————————{ 4 MOV}–||
|| ||
|| {digit1 := } ||
||———————————————————————{ 7 MOV}–||
|| ||
|| {digit2 := } ||
||———————————————————————{ 9 MOV}–||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| {digit3 := } ||
012||———————————————————————{ 4 MOV}–||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ; by Jonathan Westhues, June 2005 ||
013|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
||——[END]————————————————————————–||
|| ||
|| ||

I/O ASSIGNMENT:

Name | Type | Pin
—————————-+——————–+——
Ycom_digit0 | digital out | 14
Ycom_digit1 | digital out | 15
Ycom_digit2 | digital out | 16
Ycom_digit3 | digital out | 18
Yseg_a | digital out | 2
Yseg_b | digital out | 3
Yseg_c | digital out | 4
Yseg_d | digital out | 5
Yseg_e | digital out | 6
Yseg_f | digital out | 11
Yseg_g | digital out | 12
Rdosc | int. relay |
Cdigit | counter |
digit | general var |
digit0 | general var |
digit1 | general var |
digit2 | general var |
digit3 | general var |

LDmicro Ladder Programming Brainstorm

Posted September 7, 2009 by palmliu
Categories: LDmicro information

Tags: , , , , , ,

Hi every LDmicro user / lover,

If we have Linux on Computer, can we have LDmicro on Microcontroller?

My idea is if we have a open source high level code generator for popular microcontroller (e.g. PIC and AVR), all LDmicro friends may work together to build a “super LDmicro” for free.

Soon I will post my idea in detail.

Serial Pony Prog (PonyProg_V207c) for ATmega8

Posted September 7, 2009 by palmliu
Categories: Development Tool

Tags: , , , , , , , , , ,

Here is the modified Pony Prog serial writer circuit for ATmega8, ATmega16, ATmega32.
Info. from : http://www.sajidmc.net/en/topics/electronics/microcontroller/programmer/serial-port-programmer/
Ok. I guess the most popular microcontrollers now a days in Bangladesh are ATmega8 and ATmega32. These microcontrollers have inverted reset, that does not work with the second circuit. So I am posting a circuit specially for these sort of noninverted IC. If your AVRs reset pin in datasheet have a bar on the name of it. ( Reset ) (or has a circle outsidethe pin of it), then this programmer is suitable for you. In the circuit diagram I have already shown the pin out of the BC 547 ic.

(Note: My programmer was not working. I tried to debug it and found that the Emitter and Base of the 547 IC was short circuit. So, to check if your BC547 is working properly, take your multimeter in diode mode, and check if  an approximately 0.7 Volt drop occur between base and emitter. This will save your valuable time of debugging. (3 hours in my case. )
The completed circuit is shown in picture. It is programming my ATmega8 microcontroller.


To program go to Lancos and download the latest version of Ponyprog from there (http://www.lancos.com/prog.html).

Youtube Video : PLC Alternativo

Posted September 6, 2009 by palmliu
Categories: youtube video about LDmicro

Construcción de PLC Basado en el PIC16F877 y en los softwares LDMicro y el ICprog

AVRUSB bootloader ATMEGA8 self programming

Posted September 6, 2009 by palmliu
Categories: Development Tool

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , ,

ATmega8 AVR single-chip support for Boot Load function, what is the Boot Load function? Boot Load feature allows a single chip burn their own, no need to use other burner/programmer, really great features.

http://www.fischl.de/avrusbboot/ site developed USB interfaces Boot Load program, very good with the Oh! (simple and convenient), after a little brother amended so that it can be compatible with the AVR-CDC program ( self-made USB-RS232).
See the following circuit,

Click here is get the necessary files

LDmicro manual

Posted September 5, 2009 by palmliu
Categories: LDmicro information

Tags: , , , , , , ,
INTRODUCTION
============

LDmicro generates native code for certain Microchip PIC16 and Atmel AVR
microcontrollers. Usually software for these microcontrollers is written
in a programming language like assembler, C, or BASIC. A program in one
of these languages comprises a list of statements. These languages are
powerful and well-suited to the architecture of the processor, which
internally executes a list of instructions.

PLCs, on the other hand, are often programmed in `ladder logic.' A simple
program might look like this:

   ||                                                                    ||
   ||    Xbutton1           Tdon           Rchatter           Yred       ||
 1 ||-------]/[---------[TON 1.000 s]-+-------]/[--------------( )-------||
   ||                                 |                                  ||
   ||    Xbutton2           Tdof      |                                  ||
   ||-------]/[---------[TOF 2.000 s]-+                                  ||
   ||                                                                    ||
   ||                                                                    ||
   ||                                                                    ||
   ||    Rchatter            Ton             Tnew           Rchatter     ||
 2 ||-------]/[---------[TON 1.000 s]----[TOF 1.000 s]---------( )-------||
   ||                                                                    ||
   ||                                                                    ||
   ||                                                                    ||
   ||------[END]---------------------------------------------------------||
   ||                                                                    ||
   ||                                                                    ||

(TON is a turn-on delay; TOF is a turn-off delay. The --] [-- statements
are inputs, which behave sort of like the contacts on a relay. The
--( )-- statements are outputs, which behave sort of like the coil of a
relay. Many good references for ladder logic are available on the Internet
and elsewhere; details specific to this implementation are given below.)

A number of differences are apparent:

    * The program is presented in graphical format, not as a textual list
      of statements. Many people will initially find this easier to
      understand.

    * At the most basic level, programs look like circuit diagrams, with
      relay contacts (inputs) and coils (outputs). This is intuitive to
      programmers with knowledge of electric circuit theory.

    * The ladder logic compiler takes care of what gets calculated
      where. You do not have to write code to determine when the outputs
      have to get recalculated based on a change in the inputs or a
      timer event, and you do not have to specify the order in which
      these calculations must take place; the PLC tools do that for you.

LDmicro compiles ladder logic to PIC16 or AVR code. The following
processors are supported:
    * PIC16F877
    * PIC16F628
    * PIC16F876 (untested)
    * PIC16F88 (untested)
    * PIC16F819 (untested)
    * ATmega128
    * ATmega64
    * ATmega162 (untested)
    * ATmega32 (untested)
    * ATmega16 (untested)
    * ATmega8 (untested)

It would be easy to support more AVR or PIC16 chips, but I do not have
any way to test them. If you need one in particular then contact me and
I will see what I can do.

Using LDmicro, you can draw a ladder diagram for your program. You can
simulate the logic in real time on your PC. Then when you are convinced
that it is correct you can assign pins on the microcontroller to the
program inputs and outputs. Once you have assigned the pins, you can
compile PIC or AVR code for your program. The compiler output is a .hex
file that you can program into your microcontroller using any PIC/AVR
programmer.

LDmicro is designed to be somewhat similar to most commercial PLC
programming systems. There are some exceptions, and a lot of things
aren't standard in industry anyways. Carefully read the description
of each instruction, even if it looks familiar. This document assumes
basic knowledge of ladder logic and of the structure of PLC software
(the execution cycle: read inputs, compute, write outputs).

ADDITIONAL TARGETS
==================

It is also possible to generate ANSI C code. You could use this with any
processor for which you have a C compiler, but you are responsible for
supplying the runtime. That means that LDmicro just generates source
for a function PlcCycle(). You are responsible for calling PlcCycle
every cycle time, and you are responsible for implementing all the I/O
(read/write digital input, etc.) functions that the PlcCycle() calls. See
the comments in the generated source for more details.

Finally, LDmicro can generate processor-independent bytecode for a
virtual machine designed to run ladder logic code. I have provided a
sample implementation of the interpreter/VM, written in fairly portable
C. This target will work for just about any platform, as long as you
can supply your own VM. This might be useful for applications where you
wish to use ladder logic as a `scripting language' to customize a larger
program. See the comments in the sample interpreter for details.

COMMAND LINE OPTIONS
====================

ldmicro.exe is typically run with no command line options. That means
that you can just make a shortcut to the program, or save it to your
desktop and double-click the icon when you want to run it, and then you
can do everything from within the GUI.

If LDmicro is passed a single filename on the command line
(e.g. `ldmicro.exe asd.ld'), then LDmicro will try to open `asd.ld',
if it exists. An error is produced if `asd.ld' does not exist. This
means that you can associate ldmicro.exe with .ld files, so that it runs
automatically when you double-click a .ld file.

If LDmicro is passed command line arguments in the form
`ldmicro.exe /c src.ld dest.hex', then it tries to compile `src.ld',
and save the output as `dest.hex'. LDmicro exits after compiling,
whether the compile was successful or not. Any messages are printed
to the console. This mode is useful only when running LDmicro from the
command line.

BASICS
======

If you run LDmicro with no arguments then it starts with an empty
program. If you run LDmicro with the name of a ladder program (xxx.ld)
on the command line then it will try to load that program at startup.
LDmicro uses its own internal format for the program; it cannot import
logic from any other tool.

If you did not load an existing program then you will be given a program
with one empty rung. You could add an instruction to it; for example
you could add a set of contacts (Instruction -> Insert Contacts) named
`Xnew'. `X' means that the contacts will be tied to an input pin on the
microcontroller. You could assign a pin to it later, after choosing a
microcontroller and renaming the contacts. The first letter of a name
indicates what kind of object it is.  For example:

    * Xname -- tied to an input pin on the microcontroller
    * Yname -- tied to an output pin on the microcontroller
    * Rname -- `internal relay': a bit in memory
    * Tname -- a timer; turn-on delay, turn-off delay, or retentive
    * Cname -- a counter, either count-up or count-down
    * Aname -- an integer read from an A/D converter
    * name  -- a general-purpose (integer) variable

Choose the rest of the name so that it describes what the object does,
and so that it is unique within the program. The same name always refers
to the same object within the program. For example, it would be an error
to have a turn-on delay (TON) called `Tdelay' and a turn-off delay (TOF)
called `Tdelay' in the same program, since each counter needs its own
memory. On the other hand, it would be correct to have a retentive timer
(RTO) called `Tdelay' and a reset instruction (RES) associated with
`Tdelay', since it that case you want both instructions to work with
the same timer.

Variable names can consist of letters, numbers, and underscores
(_). A variable name must not start with a number. Variable names are
case-sensitive.

The general variable instructions (MOV, ADD, EQU, etc.) can work on
variables with any name. This means that they can access timer and
counter accumulators. This may sometimes be useful; for example, you
could check if the count of a timer is in a particular range.

Variables are always 16 bit integers. This means that they can go
from -32768 to 32767. Variables are always treated as signed. You can
specify literals as normal decimal numbers (0, 1234, -56). You can also
specify ASCII character values ('A', 'z') by putting the character in
single-quotes. You can use an ASCII character code in most places that
you could use a decimal number.

At the bottom of the screen you will see a list of all the objects in
the program. This list is automatically generated from the program;
there is no need to keep it up to date by hand. Most objects do not
need any configuration. `Xname', `Yname', and `Aname' objects must be
assigned to a pin on the microcontroller, however. First choose which
microcontroller you are using (Settings -> Microcontroller). Then assign
your I/O pins by double-clicking them on the list.

You can modify the program by inserting or deleting instructions. The
cursor in the program display blinks to indicate the currently selected
instruction and the current insertion point. If it is not blinking then
press <Tab> or click on an instruction. Now you can delete the current
instruction, or you can insert a new instruction to the right or left
(in series with) or above or below (in parallel with) the selected
instruction. Some operations are not allowed. For example, no instructions
are allowed to the right of a coil.

The program starts with just one rung. You can add more rungs by selecting
Insert Rung Before/After in the Logic menu. You could get the same effect
by placing many complicated subcircuits in parallel within one rung,
but it is more clear to use multiple rungs.

Once you have written a program, you can test it in simulation, and then
you can compile it to a HEX file for the target microcontroller.

SIMULATION
==========

To enter simulation mode, choose Simulate -> Simulation Mode or press
<Ctrl+M>. The program is shown differently in simulation mode. There is
no longer a cursor. The instructions that are energized show up bright
red; the instructions that are not appear greyed. Press the space bar to
run the PLC one cycle. To cycle continuously in real time, choose
Simulate -> Start Real-Time Simulation, or press <Ctrl+R>. The display of
the program will be updated in real time as the program state changes.

You can set the state of the inputs to the program by double-clicking
them in the list at the bottom of the screen, or by double-clicking an
`Xname' contacts instruction in the program. If you change the state of
an input pin then that change will not be reflected in how the program
is displayed until the PLC cycles; this will happen automatically if
you are running a real time simulation, or when you press the space bar.

COMPILING TO NATIVE CODE
========================

Ultimately the point is to generate a .hex file that you can program
into your microcontroller. First you must select the part number of the
microcontroller, under the Settings -> Microcontroller menu. Then you
must assign an I/O pin to each `Xname' or `Yname' object. Do this by
double-clicking the object name in the list at the bottom of the screen.
A dialog will pop up where you can choose an unallocated pin from a list.

Then you must choose the cycle time that you will run with, and you must
tell the compiler what clock speed the micro will be running at. These
are set under the Settings -> MCU Parameters... menu. In general you
should not need to change the cycle time; 10 ms is a good value for most
applications. Type in the frequency of the crystal that you will use
with the microcontroller (or the ceramic resonator, etc.) and click okay.

Now you can generate code from your program. Choose Compile -> Compile,
or Compile -> Compile As... if you have previously compiled this program
and you want to specify a different output file name. If there are no
errors then LDmicro will generate an Intel IHEX file ready for
programming into your chip.

Use whatever programming software and hardware you have to load the hex
file into the microcontroller. Remember to set the configuration bits
(fuses)! For PIC16 processors, the configuration bits are included in the
hex file, and most programming software will look there automatically.
For AVR processors you must set the configuration bits by hand.

INSTRUCTIONS REFERENCE
======================

> CONTACT, NORMALLY OPEN        Xname           Rname          Yname
                             ----] [----     ----] [----    ----] [----

    If the signal going into the instruction is false, then the output
    signal is false. If the signal going into the instruction is true,
    then the output signal is true if and only if the given input pin,
    output pin, or internal relay is true, else it is false. This
    instruction can examine the state of an input pin, an output pin,
    or an internal relay.

> CONTACT, NORMALLY CLOSED      Xname           Rname          Yname
                             ----]/[----     ----]/[----    ----]/[----

    If the signal going into the instruction is false, then the output
    signal is false. If the signal going into the instruction is true,
    then the output signal is true if and only if the given input pin,
    output pin, or internal relay is false, else it is false. This
    instruction can examine the state of an input pin, an output pin,
    or an internal relay. This is the opposite of a normally open contact.

> COIL, NORMAL                  Rname           Yname
                             ----( )----     ----( )----

    If the signal going into the instruction is false, then the given
    internal relay or output pin is cleared false. If the signal going
    into this instruction is true, then the given internal relay or output
    pin is set true. It is not meaningful to assign an input variable to a
    coil. This instruction must be the rightmost instruction in its rung.

> COIL, NEGATED                 Rname           Yname
                             ----(/)----     ----(/)----

    If the signal going into the instruction is true, then the given
    internal relay or output pin is cleared false. If the signal going
    into this instruction is false, then the given internal relay or
    output pin is set true. It is not meaningful to assign an input
    variable to a coil.  This is the opposite of a normal coil. This
    instruction must be the rightmost instruction in its rung.

> COIL, SET-ONLY                Rname           Yname
                             ----(S)----     ----(S)----

    If the signal going into the instruction is true, then the given
    internal relay or output pin is set true. Otherwise the internal
    relay or output pin state is not changed. This instruction can only
    change the state of a coil from false to true, so it is typically
    used in combination with a reset-only coil. This instruction must
    be the rightmost instruction in its rung.

> COIL, RESET-ONLY              Rname           Yname
                             ----(R)----     ----(R)----

    If the signal going into the instruction is true, then the given
    internal relay or output pin is cleared false. Otherwise the
    internal relay or output pin state is not changed. This instruction
    instruction can only change the state of a coil from true to false,
    so it is typically used in combination with a set-only coil. This
    instruction must be the rightmost instruction in its rung.

> TURN-ON DELAY                 Tdon
                           -[TON 1.000 s]-

    When the signal going into the instruction goes from false to true,
    the output signal stays false for 1.000 s before going true. When the
    signal going into the instruction goes from true to false, the output
    signal goes false immediately. The timer is reset every time the input
    goes false; the input must stay true for 1000 consecutive milliseconds
    before the output will go true. The delay is configurable.

    The `Tname' variable counts up from zero in units of scan times. The
    TON instruction outputs true when the counter variable is greater
    than or equal to the given delay. It is possible to manipulate the
    counter variable elsewhere, for example with a MOV instruction.

> TURN-OFF DELAY                Tdoff
                           -[TOF 1.000 s]-

    When the signal going into the instruction goes from true to false,
    the output signal stays true for 1.000 s before going false. When
    the signal going into the instruction goes from false to true,
    the output signal goes true immediately. The timer is reset every
    time the input goes false; the input must stay false for 1000
    consecutive milliseconds before the output will go false. The delay
    is configurable.

    The `Tname' variable counts up from zero in units of scan times. The
    TON instruction outputs true when the counter variable is greater
    than or equal to the given delay. It is possible to manipulate the
    counter variable elsewhere, for example with a MOV instruction.

> RETENTIVE TIMER               Trto
                           -[RTO 1.000 s]-

    This instruction keeps track of how long its input has been true. If
    its input has been true for at least 1.000 s, then the output is
    true. Otherwise the output is false. The input need not have been
    true for 1000 consecutive milliseconds; if the input goes true
    for 0.6 s, then false for 2.0 s, and then true for 0.4 s, then the
    output will go true. After the output goes true it will stay true
    even after the input goes false, as long as the input has been true
    for longer than 1.000 s. This timer must therefore be reset manually,
    using the reset instruction.

    The `Tname' variable counts up from zero in units of scan times. The
    TON instruction outputs true when the counter variable is greater
    than or equal to the given delay. It is possible to manipulate the
    counter variable elsewhere, for example with a MOV instruction.

> RESET                        Trto             Citems
                           ----{RES}----     ----{RES}----

    This instruction resets a timer or a counter. TON and TOF timers are
    automatically reset when their input goes false or true, so RES is
    not required for these timers. RTO timers and CTU/CTD counters are
    not reset automatically, so they must be reset by hand using a RES
    instruction. When the input is true, the counter or timer is reset;
    when the input is false, no action is taken. This instruction must
    be the rightmost instruction in its rung.

> ONE-SHOT RISING                  _
                           --[OSR_/ ]--

    This instruction normally outputs false. If the instruction's input
    is true during this scan and it was false during the previous scan
    then the output is true. It therefore generates a pulse one scan
    wide on each rising edge of its input signal. This instruction is
    useful if you want to trigger events off the rising edge of a signal.

> ONE-SHOT FALLING               _
                           --[OSF \_]--

    This instruction normally outputs false. If the instruction's input
    is false during this scan and it was true during the previous scan
    then the output is true. It therefore generates a pulse one scan
    wide on each falling edge of its input signal. This instruction is
    useful if you want to trigger events off the falling edge of a signal.

> SHORT CIRCUIT, OPEN CIRCUIT
                           ----+----+----      ----+     +----

    The output condition of a short-circuit is always equal to its
    input condition. The output condition of an open-circuit is always
    false. These are mostly useful for debugging.

> MASTER CONTROL RELAY
                           -{MASTER RLY}-

    By default, the rung-in condition of every rung is true. If a master
    control relay instruction is executed with a rung-in condition of
    false, then the rung-in condition for all following rungs becomes
    false. This will continue until the next master control relay
    instruction is reached (regardless of the rung-in condition of that
    instruction). These instructions must therefore be used in pairs:
    one to (maybe conditionally) start the possibly-disabled section,
    and one to end it.

> MOVE                      {destvar :=  }      {Tret :=     }
                           -{ 123     MOV}-    -{ srcvar  MOV}-

    When the input to this instruction is true, it sets the given
    destination variable equal to the given source variable or
    constant. When the input to this instruction is false nothing
    happens. You can assign to any variable with the move instruction;
    this includes timer and counter state variables, which can be
    distinguished by the leading `T' or `C'. For example, an instruction
    moving 0 into `Tretentive' is equivalent to a reset (RES) instruction
    for that timer. This instruction must be the rightmost instruction
    in its rung.

> ARITHMETIC OPERATION       {ADD  kay  :=}       {SUB  Ccnt :=}
                            -{ 'a' + 10   }-     -{ Ccnt - 10  }-

>                            {MUL  dest :=}       {DIV  dv :=  }
                            -{ var * -990 }-     -{ dv / -10000}-

    When the input to this instruction is true, it sets the given
    destination variable equal to the given expression. The operands
    can be either variables (including timer and counter variables)
    or constants. These instructions use 16 bit signed math. Remember
    that the result is evaluated every cycle when the input condition
    true. If you are incrementing or decrementing a variable (i.e. if
    the destination variable is also one of the operands) then you
    probably don't want that; typically you would use a one-shot so that
    it is evaluated only on the rising or falling edge of the input
    condition. Divide truncates; 8 / 3 = 2. This instruction must be
    the rightmost instruction in its rung.

> COMPARE               [var ==]        [var >]        [1 >=]
                       -[ var2 ]-      -[ 1   ]-      -[ Ton]-

>                       [var /=]       [-4 <   ]       [1 <=]
                       -[ var2 ]-     -[ vartwo]-     -[ Cup]-

    If the input to this instruction is false then the output is false. If
    the input is true then the output is true if and only if the given
    condition is true. This instruction can be used to compare (equals,
    is greater than, is greater than or equal to, does not equal,
    is less than, is less than or equal to) a variable to a variable,
    or to compare a variable to a 16-bit signed constant.

> COUNTER                      Cname          Cname
                           --[CTU >=5]--  --[CTD >=5]--

    A counter increments (CTU, count up) or decrements (CTD, count
    down) the associated count on every rising edge of the rung input
    condition (i.e. what the rung input condition goes from false to
    true). The output condition from the counter is true if the counter
    variable is greater than or equal to 5, and false otherwise. The
    rung output condition may be true even if the input condition is
    false; it only depends on the counter variable. You can have CTU
    and CTD instructions with the same name, in order to increment and
    decrement the same counter. The RES instruction can reset a counter,
    or you can perform general variable operations on the count variable.

> CIRCULAR COUNTER             Cname
                           --{CTC 0:7}--

    A circular counter works like a normal CTU counter, except that
    after reaching its upper limit, it resets its counter variable
    back to 0. For example, the counter shown above would count 0, 1,
    2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 0, 2,.... This is useful in
    combination with conditional statements on the variable `Cname';
    you can use this like a sequencer. CTC counters clock on the rising
    edge of the rung input condition condition. This instruction must
    be the rightmost instruction in its rung.

> SHIFT REGISTER            {SHIFT REG   }
                           -{ reg0..3    }-

    A shift register is associated with a set of variables. For example,
    this shift register is associated with the variables `reg0', `reg1',
    `reg2', and `reg3'. The input to the shift register is `reg0'. On
    every rising edge of the rung-in condition, the shift register will
    shift right. That means that it assigns `reg3 := reg2', `reg2 :=
    reg1'. and `reg1 := reg0'. `reg0' is left unchanged. A large shift
    register can easily consume a lot of memory. This instruction must
    be the rightmost instruction in its rung.

> LOOK-UP TABLE             {dest :=     }
                           -{ LUT[i]     }-

    A look-up table is an ordered set of n values. When the rung-in
    condition is true, the integer variable `dest' is set equal to the
    entry in the lookup table corresponding to the integer variable
    `i'. The index starts from zero, so `i' must be between 0 and
    (n-1). The behaviour of this instruction is not defined if the
    index is outside this range. This instruction must be the rightmost
    instruction in its rung.

> PIECEWISE LINEAR TABLE    {yvar :=     }
                           -{ PWL[xvar]  }-

    This is a good way to approximate a complicated function or
    curve. It might, for example, be useful if you are trying to apply
    a calibration curve to convert a raw output voltage from a sensor
    into more convenient units.

    Assume that you are trying to approximate a function that converts
    an integer input variable, x, to an integer output variable, y. You
    know the function at several points; for example, you might know that

        f(0)   = 2
        f(5)   = 10
        f(10)  = 50
        f(100) = 100

    This means that the points

        (x0, y0)   = (  0,   2)
        (x1, y1)   = (  5,  10)
        (x2, y2)   = ( 10,  50)
        (x3, y3)   = (100, 100)

    lie on that curve. You can enter those 4 points into a table
    associated with the piecewise linear instruction. The piecewise linear
    instruction will look at the value of xvar, and set the value of
    yvar. It will set yvar in such a way that the piecewise linear curve
    will pass through all of the points that you give it; for example,
    if you set xvar = 10, then the instruction will set yvar = 50.

    If you give the instruction a value of xvar that lies between two
    of the values of x for which you have given it points, then the
    instruction will set yvar so that (xvar, yvar) lies on the straight
    line connecting those two points in the table.  For example, xvar =
    55 gives an output of yvar = 75. (The two points in the table are
    (10, 50) and (100, 100). 55 is half-way between 10 and 100, and 75
    is half-way between 50 and 100, so (55, 75) lies on the line that
    connects those two points.)

    The points must be specified in ascending order by x coordinate. It
    may not be possible to perform mathematical operations required for
    certain look-up tables using 16-bit integer math; if this is the
    case, then LDmicro will warn you. For example, this look up table
    will produce an error:

        (x0, y0)    = (  0,   0)
        (x1, y1)    = (300, 300)

    You can fix these errors by making the distance between points in
    the table smaller. For example, this table is equivalent to the one
    given above, and it does not produce an error:

        (x0, y0)    = (  0,   0)
        (x1, y1)    = (150, 150)
        (x2, y2)    = (300, 300)

    It should hardly ever be necessary to use more than five or six
    points. Adding more points makes your code larger and slower to
    execute. The behaviour if you pass a value of `xvar' greater than
    the greatest x coordinate in the table or less than the smallest x
    coordinate in the table is undefined. This instruction must be the
    rightmost instruction in its rung.

> A/D CONVERTER READ           Aname
                           --{READ ADC}--

    LDmicro can generate code to use the A/D converters built in to
    certain microcontrollers. If the input condition to this instruction
    is true, then a single sample from the A/D converter is acquired and
    stored in the variable `Aname'. This variable can subsequently be
    manipulated with general variable operations (less than, greater than,
    arithmetic, and so on). Assign a pin to the `Axxx' variable in the
    same way that you would assign a pin to a digital input or output,
    by double-clicking it in the list at the bottom of the screen. If
    the input condition to this rung is false then the variable `Aname'
    is left unchanged.

    For all currently-supported devices, 0 volts input corresponds to
    an ADC reading of 0, and an input equal to Vdd (the supply voltage)
    corresponds to an ADC reading of 1023. If you are using an AVR, then
    connect AREF to Vdd. You can use arithmetic operations to scale the
    reading to more convenient units afterwards, but remember that you
    are using integer math. In general not all pins will be available
    for use with the A/D converter. The software will not allow you to
    assign non-A/D pins to an analog input. This instruction must be
    the rightmost instruction in its rung.

> SET PWM DUTY CYCLE          duty_cycle
                           -{PWM 32.8 kHz}-

    LDmicro can generate code to use the PWM peripheral built in to
    certain microcontrollers. If the input condition to this instruction
    is true, then the duty cycle of the PWM peripheral is set to the
    value of the variable duty_cycle. The duty cycle must be a number
    between 0 and 100; 0 corresponds to always low, and 100 corresponds to
    always high. (If you are familiar with how the PWM peripheral works,
    then notice that that means that LDmicro automatically scales the
    duty cycle variable from percent to PWM clock periods.)

    You can specify the target PWM frequency, in Hz. The frequency that
    you specify might not be exactly achievable, depending on how it
    divides into the microcontroller's clock frequency. LDmicro will
    choose the closest achievable frequency; if the error is large then
    it will warn you. Faster speeds may sacrifice resolution.

    This instruction must be the rightmost instruction in its rung.
    The ladder logic runtime consumes one timer to measure the cycle
    time. That means that PWM is only available on microcontrollers
    with at least two suitable timers. PWM uses pin CCP2 (not CCP1)
    on PIC16 chips and OC2 (not OC1A) on AVRs.

> MAKE PERSISTENT            saved_var
                           --{PERSIST}--

    When the rung-in condition of this instruction is true, it causes the
    specified integer variable to be automatically saved to EEPROM. That
    means that its value will persist, even when the micro loses
    power. There is no need to explicitly save the variable to EEPROM;
    that will happen automatically, whenever the variable changes. The
    variable is automatically loaded from EEPROM after power-on reset. If
    a variable that changes frequently is made persistent, then the
    EEPROM in your micro may wear out very quickly, because it is only
    good for a limited (~100 000) number of writes. When the rung-in
    condition is false, nothing happens. This instruction must be the
    rightmost instruction in its rung.

> UART (SERIAL) RECEIVE          var
                           --{UART RECV}--

    LDmicro can generate code to use the UART built in to certain
    microcontrollers. On AVRs with multiple UARTs only UART1 (not
    UART0) is supported. Configure the baud rate using Settings -> MCU
    Parameters. Certain baud rates may not be achievable with certain
    crystal frequencies; LDmicro will warn you if this is the case.

    If the input condition to this instruction is false, then nothing
    happens. If the input condition is true then this instruction tries
    to receive a single character from the UART. If no character is read
    then the output condition is false. If a character is read then its
    ASCII value is stored in `var', and the output condition is true
    for a single PLC cycle.

> UART (SERIAL) SEND             var
                           --{UART SEND}--

    LDmicro can generate code to use the UARTs built in to certain
    microcontrollers. On AVRS with multiple UARTs only UART1 (not
    UART0) is supported. Configure the baud rate using Settings -> MCU
    Parameters. Certain baud rates may not be achievable with certain
    crystal frequencies; LDmicro will warn you if this is the case.

    If the input condition to this instruction is false, then nothing
    happens. If the input condition is true then this instruction writes
    a single character to the UART. The ASCII value of the character to
    send must previously have been stored in `var'. The output condition
    of the rung is true if the UART is busy (currently transmitting a
    character), and false otherwise.

    Remember that characters take some time to transmit. Check the output
    condition of this instruction to ensure that the first character has
    been transmitted before trying to send a second character, or use
    a timer to insert a delay between characters. You must only bring
    the input condition true (try to send a character) when the output
    condition is false (UART is not busy).

    Investigate the formatted string instruction (next) before using this
    instruction. The formatted string instruction is much easier to use,
    and it is almost certainly capable of doing what you want.

> FORMATTED STRING OVER UART                var
                                   -{"Pressure: \3\r\n"}-

    LDmicro can generate code to use the UARTs built in to certain
    microcontrollers. On AVRS with multiple UARTs only UART1 (not
    UART0) is supported. Configure the baud rate using Settings -> MCU
    Parameters. Certain baud rates may not be achievable with certain
    crystal frequencies; LDmicro will warn you if this is the case.

    When the rung-in condition for this instruction goes from false to
    true, it starts to send an entire string over the serial port. If
    the string contains the special sequence `\3', then that sequence
    will be replaced with the value of `var', which is automatically
    converted into a string. The variable will be formatted to take
    exactly 3 characters; for example, if `var' is equal to 35, then
    the exact string printed will be `Pressure:  35\r\n' (note the extra
    space). If instead `var' were equal to 1432, then the behaviour would
    be undefined, because 1432 has more than three digits. In that case
    it would be necessary to use `\4' instead.

    If the variable might be negative, then use `\-3d' (or `\-4d'
    etc.) instead. That will cause LDmicro to print a leading space for
    positive numbers, and a leading minus sign for negative numbers.

    If multiple formatted string instructions are energized at once
    (or if one is energized before another completes), or if these
    instructions are intermixed with the UART TX instructions, then the
    behaviour is undefined.

    It is also possible to use this instruction to output a fixed string,
    without interpolating an integer variable's value into the text that
    is sent over serial. In that case simply do not include the special
    escape sequence.

    Use `\\' for a literal backslash. In addition to the escape sequence
    for interpolating an integer variable, the following control
    characters are available:
        * \r   -- carriage return
        * \n   -- newline
        * \f   -- formfeed
        * \b   -- backspace
        * \xAB -- character with ASCII value 0xAB (hex)

    The rung-out condition of this instruction is true while it is
    transmitting data, else false. This instruction consumes a very
    large amount of program memory, so it should be used sparingly. The
    present implementation is not efficient, but a better one will
    require modifications to all the back-ends.

A NOTE ON USING MATH
====================

Remember that LDmicro performs only 16-bit integer math. That means
that the final result of any calculation that you perform must be an
integer between -32768 and 32767. It also mean that the intermediate
results of your calculation must all be within that range.

For example, let us say that you wanted to calculate y = (1/x)*1200,
where x is between 1 and 20. Then y goes between 1200 and 60, which
fits into a 16-bit integer, so it is at least in theory possible to
perform the calculation. There are two ways that you might code this:
you can perform the reciprocal, and then multiply:

   ||         {DIV  temp  :=}          ||
   ||---------{ 1 / x       }----------||
   ||                                  ||
   ||          {MUL  y  :=  }          ||
   ||----------{ temp * 1200}----------||
   ||                                  ||

Or you could just do the division directly, in a single step:

   ||           {DIV  y  :=}           ||
   ||-----------{ 1200 / x }-----------||

Mathematically, these two are equivalent; but if you try them, then you
will find that the first one gives an incorrect result of y = 0. That
is because the variable `temp' underflows. For example, when x = 3,
(1 / x) = 0.333, but that is not an integer; the division operation
approximates this as temp = 0. Then y = temp * 1200 = 0. In the second
case there is no intermediate result to underflow, so everything works.

If you are seeing problems with your math, then check intermediate
results for underflow (or overflow, which `wraps around'; for example,
32767 + 1 = -32768). When possible, choose units that put values in
a range of -100 to 100.

When you need to scale a variable by some factor, do it using a multiply
and a divide. For example, to scale y = 1.8*x, calculate y = (9/5)*x
(which is the same, since 1.8 = 9/5), and code this as y = (9*x)/5,
performing the multiplication first:

   ||         {MUL  temp  :=}          ||
   ||---------{ x * 9       }----------||
   ||                                  ||
   ||           {DIV  y  :=}           ||
   ||-----------{ temp / 5 }-----------||

This works for all x < (32767 / 9), or x < 3640. For larger values of x,
the variable `temp' would overflow. There is a similar lower limit on x.

CODING STYLE
============

I allow multiple coils in parallel in a single rung. This means that
you can do things like this:

   ||       Xa               Ya        ||
 1 ||-------] [--------------( )-------||
   ||                                  ||
   ||       Xb               Yb        ||
   ||-------] [------+-------( )-------||
   ||                |                 ||
   ||                |       Yc        ||
   ||                +-------( )-------||
   ||                                  ||

Instead of this:

   ||       Xa               Ya        ||
 1 ||-------] [--------------( )-------||
   ||                                  ||
   ||                                  ||
   ||                                  ||
   ||                                  ||
   ||       Xb               Yb        ||
 2 ||-------] [--------------( )-------||
   ||                                  ||
   ||                                  ||
   ||                                  ||
   ||                                  ||
   ||       Xb               Yc        ||
 3 ||-------] [--------------( )-------||
   ||                                  ||

This means that in theory you could write any program as one giant rung,
and there is no need to use multiple rungs at all. In practice that
would be a bad idea, because as rungs become more complex they become
more difficult to edit without deleting and redrawing a lot of logic.

Still, it is often a good idea to group related logic together as a single
rung. This generates nearly identical code to if you made separate rungs,
but it shows that they are related when you look at them on the ladder
diagram.

                  *                 *                  *

In general, it is considered poor form to write code in such a way that
its output depends on the order of the rungs. For example, this code
isn't very good if both Xa and Xb might ever be true:

   ||       Xa         {v  :=       }  ||
 1 ||-------] [--------{ 12      MOV}--||
   ||                                  ||
   ||       Xb         {v  :=       }  ||
   ||-------] [--------{ 23      MOV}--||
   ||                                  ||
   ||                                  ||
   ||                                  ||
   ||                                  ||
   ||      [v >]             Yc        ||
 2 ||------[ 15]-------------( )-------||
   ||                                  ||

I will break this rule if in doing so I can make a piece of code
significantly more compact, though. For example, here is how I would
convert a 4-bit binary quantity on Xb3:0 into an integer:

   ||                                   {v  :=       }  ||
 3 ||-----------------------------------{ 0       MOV}--||
   ||                                                   ||
   ||       Xb0                  {ADD  v  :=}           ||
   ||-------] [------------------{ v + 1    }-----------||
   ||                                                   ||
   ||       Xb1                  {ADD  v  :=}           ||
   ||-------] [------------------{ v + 2    }-----------||
   ||                                                   ||
   ||       Xb2                  {ADD  v  :=}           ||
   ||-------] [------------------{ v + 4    }-----------||
   ||                                                   ||
   ||       Xb3                  {ADD  v  :=}           ||
   ||-------] [------------------{ v + 8    }-----------||
   ||                                                   ||

If the MOV statement were moved to the bottom of the rung instead of the
top, then the value of v when it is read elsewhere in the program would
be 0. The output of this code therefore depends on the order in which
the instructions are evaluated. Considering how cumbersome it would be
to code this any other way, I accept that.

BUGS
====

LDmicro does not generate very efficient code; it is slow to execute, and
wasteful of flash and RAM. In spite of this, a mid-sized PIC or AVR can
do everything that a small PLC can, so this does not bother me very much.

The maximum length of variable names is highly limited. This is so that
they fit nicely onto the ladder diagram, so I don't see a good solution
to that.

If your program is too big for the time, program memory, or data memory
constraints of the device that you have chosen then you probably won't
get an error. It will just screw up somewhere.

Careless programming in the file load/save routines probably makes it
possible to crash or execute arbitrary code given a corrupt or malicious
.ld file.

Please report additional bugs or feature requests to the author.

Thanks to:
    * Marcelo Solano, for reporting a UI bug under Win98
    * Serge V. Polubarjev, for not only noticing that RA3:0 on the
      PIC16F628 didn't work but also telling me how to fix it
    * Maxim Ibragimov, for reporting and diagnosing major problems
      with the till-then-untested ATmega16 and ATmega162 targets
    * Bill Kishonti, for reporting that the simulator crashed when the
      ladder logic program divided by zero
    * Mohamed Tayae, for reporting that persistent variables were broken
      on the PIC16F628
    * David Rothwell, for reporting several user interface bugs and a
      problem with the "Export as Text" function

COPYING, AND DISCLAIMER
=======================

DO NOT USE CODE GENERATED BY LDMICRO IN APPLICATIONS WHERE SOFTWARE
FAILURE COULD RESULT IN DANGER TO HUMAN LIFE OR DAMAGE TO PROPERTY. THE
AUTHOR ASSUMES NO LIABILITY FOR ANY DAMAGES RESULTING FROM THE OPERATION
OF LDMICRO OR CODE GENERATED BY LDMICRO.

This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it
under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your
option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY
or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License
for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

Jonathan Westhues

Rijswijk      -- Dec 2004
Waterloo ON   -- Jun, Jul 2005
Cambridge MA  -- Sep, Dec 2005
                 Feb, Mar 2006
                 Feb 2007
Seattle WA    -- Feb 2009

Email: user jwesthues, at host cq.cx

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